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Class Supplement (早稲田国際AO入試 Economic Liberalism -partly rewritten-)

2011年9月16日

解答のポイント
主題 教育年数ではなく試験の成績が経済成長率に影響する

参考 Economic growth is measured as a percentage change in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross National Product (GNP). These two measures, which are calculated slightly differently, total the amounts paid for the goods and services that a country produced. As an example of measuring economic growth, a country which creates $9,000,000,000 in goods and services in 2010 and then creates $9,090,000,000 in 2011, has an economic growth rate of 1% for 2011. (Wikipedia)

グラフaとbの見方
縦軸はグラフaとb共に経済成長率で、上に行くほど成長率が高く、中央より下はマイナス成長。横軸はグラフaは試験の成績、グラフbは教育年数を表している。つまり、グラフa では右に行くほどその国は「勉強ができる」ことになり、グラフbでは右に行くほどその国は「学校に行く年数が多い」ことになる。そして、グラフaの傾きがプラスの一次関数の線分は「試験の成績と経済成長率は比例する」ことを示している。
グラフbからわかること 学校に行く年数と経済成長率は関係ない。
グラフaから分かること 試験の成績がよいほど経済成長率が高い。

問1 以下のグラフは1960年から2000年の50カ国の調整済みの経済成長率と教育指標の関係を示している。これらのグラフが示す事をひと段落で説明してください。

グラフaでは試験の成績がよい国ほど経済成長率が高くなっているが、グラフbでは点が全体にばらついており特に規則性がみられない。従って、学校に行く期間と経済成長率は関係ない。このことから、教育年数ではなく試験の成績が経済成長率に影響するということが分かる。

問2 グラフに示された局面以外で、経済成長率に影響を与えそうな局面を述べてください。
考え方 経済成長率の高い国と低い国、または、経済成長率が大きく変化した国の過去と現在を比較し、試験の成績以外の異なる要素を探す。

Market: Developed countries, which have little market left in their own countries, have small growth rates, while emerging economies such as China, India, and Brazil, have a vast market to be cultivated.
Technology: The edge in technology often decides the market share. Korea, whose electronics technology has grown over the past decade, now lead many areas of the market.
Infrastructure: Emerging economies invest in infrastructure, which in itself activate economy by creating jobs, and the latest infrastructure in place will increase productivity by numbers and speed, while developing countries with insufficient infrastructure or developed countries with neglected infrastructure lose in competition.
Availability of cheap labor: Lower personnel costs will keep the product price low.
Middle class (consumers): The middle class in America has shrunk due to outsourcing to other countries, which, in turn, reduced the power of consumption, the market on its soil.
Health problems and disasters: Factors that affect a large number of lives will directly reduce workforce, production, and purchasing power. They could also cause lower budget for R&D.
War: Money spent on wars could be used for economic growth. Japan, under the military umbrella of the US, was able to save money and focus on economic recovery after World War II. On the other hand, America went bankrupt-its national debt reached 100% of its GDP in 2011-after a decade of Afghanistan-Iraq Wars.

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