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Class Supplement (早稲田国際AO入試 Are Libraries Obsolete?)

Are Libraries Obsolete?

主題: 図書館は電子情報の欠点を補完して情報への十分なアクセスを保証する民主主義の牙城なのでインターネットに取って代わられることはないだろう。

本文該当箇所 第1段落 Access to information is as critical component of any democracy and a lack of support for libraries will lead to a decrease in the number of libraries, fewer library services, a dearth of resources, and ultimately a lack of access to information. This may be good news for totalitarian regimes, but it is not good for people who prefer living in free countries. 情報へのアクセスは民主主義の重要な要素であり図書館への援助不足は図書館の数の減少、図書業務の減少、情報供給源の欠乏、そして最終的には情報へのアクセス不足へとつながるだろう。これは全体主義体制にとっては良い知らせかもしれないが自由主義国家に暮らすことを好む人々にとっては良くない。


問1 現代社会において図書館が果たす機能は何でしょうか? 

考え方  主題の「情報へのアクセスを保証し民主主義を守る」を押さえ、「情報へのアクセスの保証」を第2~5段落(インターネットの3つの欠点《古い情報やローカルな情報がない 信頼性が低い ③流動性が高い=簡単に失われる》と図書館の利点の対比)を使って説明する。 インターネット中心の書き方にならないようにする。 

本文該当箇所 古い情報やローカルな情報 第2段落First, the Internet is relatively new and few web sites are even 10 years old yet. 第一にインターネットは比較的新しく設立後10年のサイトさえほとんどない。Libraries, of course, house this kind of information on microfiche format. 図書館はこのような情報をマイクロフィッシュ判で所蔵している。第3段落A similar problem would be encountered if trying to research the history of a particular institutionsay a university. 特定の学校たとえばある大学の歴史を調査しようとする場合に同様の問題に遭遇するだろう。the most likely source would be the library archives. 最もありそうな情報源は図書館の書庫だ。信頼性 第4段落search engines do not advise on the reliability of the information provided. 検索エンジンは提供される情報の信頼性に関して指導を行わない。 The books and resources in a library collection, however, have been selected by professionals who have knowledge and understanding of the resource. Library reference books, however, are carefully researched and selected by professionals which a commitment to acquiring reputable sources. しかし図書館収蔵物の情報資源は情報に関する知識と理解のある専門家が選んでいる。図書館の参考書は立派な情報源を入手することに専念している専門家たちが注意深く調査選別している。流動性 第5段落It must also be kept in mind that information on the Internet is fluid. In other words, the information can disappear at any time. インターネット上の情報は流動的であることも念頭に置かねばならない。言い換えれば、情報がいつでも消える可能性があるのだ。While it is true that books may go out of print or book burnings may occur, this sort of losing information does not compare to the frequency, ease and extent of losing electronic information. 確かに本は絶版になるかもしれないし焚書が起こるかもしれないが、この種の情報喪失は電子情報消失の頻度や容易さ、範囲とは比べ物にならない

解答のポイント例 Libraries are the stronghold of democracy which allows and ensures free access to full and reliable information in this digitized society. They preserve old or specific information that cannot be found on the Internet, and have reliable resources carefully selected by professionals. Also, paper books cannot be lost so easily as electric information is and they keep concrete evidence of information in ink and paper almost forever. 


1.問2 政府はインターネット上の情報提供にどのようにかかわっていますか? 

考え方  アメリカ政府の政府情報削除と中国政府のサイト弾圧の例が出てくるのでこれをまとめる。他に知っている例(イラン政府の国民に対する外部へのアクセス妨害や数カ国によるWikiLeaksへのアクセス禁止や掲載内容への批判など)があれば書く

本文該当箇所 第5段落The U.S. government, for example, has been eliminating various web sites that preciously published governmental information such as statistical studies or reports by government agencies. 例えばアメリカ政府は政府機関による統計的研究や報告のような政府情報を以前公表していた様々なサイトを削除している。The government of China has railed against certain websites and blocked public access to them, thus restricting access to millions of computer users in that country. 中国政府はあるサイトを非難し公衆のアクセスをブロックして中国の何百万人ものコンピューターユーザーのアクセスを制限した。

解答のポイント例 Governments do not leave the Internet totally free and open. For some reasons, they eliminate web sites which provide governmental information, and they also limit access to the information relating to security or control. Some governments ban public access to or criticize certain web sites that they consider have inappropriate information, including the information of their brutal crackdown on their people or atrocities to other people, and others prevent their people from having contact with the outside world and acquiring or sending out information.


問3 筆者の考えを述べている文を完成させるのに最適な語を下のリストから選び、次にインターネットに関する筆者の見方に賛成かどうかを述べてください。


この記事の筆者はインターネット上の情報は容易に得られるがあまり(    )ではないと感じている。  広がっている    否定される    削除される    信頼される    提供される

考え方  4段落から「信頼される」が答えであることが分かる。説明の具体例は情報源不明、変更・削除が容易、匿名性、Wikipediaへの悪ふざけや素人の参加による信頼性の低下などが考えられる 解答のポイント例 The source of the information is unclear. / The information can be changed or deleted easily. / Anonymity allows people to exaggerate facts or make up false information. / Some play hoax on Wikipedia. / Not only professionals but also lay people participate in sharing information, which makes information on the Internet unreliable.


Extra Question: What can we learn from the decline of the United States?

We can learn that the following phenomena are bad signs.

Too much government spending on military and war (Iraq and Afghanistan, War on Terror)

Huge national debt ($12 trillion)

Slow to start tackling environment and energy issues (the Kyoto Protocol, the fall of GM)

The extremely wide gap between the rich and the poor (The top 20 % earning almost 50% of the income generated in the U.S. / A leaked Citibank memo says the top 1% of households account for more than the bottom 95% of households put together; the decline of the middle class because of offshoring; loss of pension and houses because of financial crimes; lack of regulations on the financial, insurance, credit, and pharmaceutical companies)

Insufficient safety net (the healthcare system that serves the insurance companies)

Broken education (Although the Obama administration is restoring environment for real education, decades of neglect has had American children falling way behind in every category except for confidence; 4o million Americans cannot read and write over the 4th grade level, and 40 million can read but cannot comprehend what is written; decline of creativity)

Media propaganda (sponsored by large corporations; fear mongering, less serious issues than rather irrelevant issues; too much focus on fashion, celebrities, and entertainment)

Unfettered capitalism (corporations: profit-pursuing machines for shareholders, trying to make money from anything/anyone; competition: making people see each other as their opponents/enemies, not as their fellows, and dismiss those left behind)

Losing soft power: attack without a cause, civilian casualties, torture


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