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Class Supplement: 早稲田AO Extra Questions

This map is taken from a website entitled World Map of Railways. Take a look at it and answer the following questions.

World Map of Railways ( http://theintrepid.blogspot.com/2009/10/world-map-of-railways.html)

1. Focusing on Africa and India, write a paragraph explaining what you can learn from this map concerning development.

2. Discuss what aspects other than infrastructure are necessary to fight poverty.

Answer Keys
Excerpts from Common Wealth Economics for Crowded Planet, Jeffrey D. Sachs
pp.227-228
Unlike the Eurasian landmass, sub-Saharan Africa is inherently isolated by the Sahara and by the lack of rivers navigable from the ocean to the interior. Moreover, the colonial powers did not build much infrastructure in the interior of Africa. In India, the British raj constructed a thorough rail network often connected to rural roads, in part to bring India’s rural cotton production to British factories. In Africa, by contrast, rails were not built to reach villages but rather a few diamond and gold mines. The result was not a rail network but some disconnected rail capillaries that reached only a tiny proportion of Africa’s rural population.

pp. 229-231
The poor know what to do but are too poor to do it. Since they can’t meet their immediate needs (food, safe water, health care) they also can’t afford to save and invest for the future. That is where foreign assistance comes in. A temporary boost of aid over the course of several years, if properly invested, can lead to a permanent rise in productivity. That boost, in turn, leads to self-sustaining growth. The logical chain is the following:
Temporary aid→Boost of productivity→Rise of saving and investment→Sustained growth

The escape from extreme poverty requires four basic types of investment. The first is a boost to productivity of the core livelihood, agriculture. This is the hallowed Green Revolution that initially lifts smallholder farmers out of subsistence. The second is health, including control of the main killers-infection, nutritional deficiencies, and unsafe childbirth-through the provision of preventative and curative health services. The third is education, which ensures that households develop the requisite skills to navigate the local global economy. The fourth is infrastructure, essential for productivity in every sphere, including power, roads, safe water for drinking and sanitation, phone and Internet connectivity, and port services. The boost of farm production has very often been the deus ex machina that triggers the long term growth process. It is also a process that often starts with outside help, as when the United States funded the initial research and many of the inputs (improved seeds and fertilizer) that went into India’s Green Revolution, which began in the second half of the 1960s. In the urban areas, the initial investment will not support agriculture but rather manufacturing or services. Perhaps the trigger to growth will be improved roads that facilitate trade or an improved port that permits the start of an apparel sector or a power plant that provides vital power for factory production. Whatever the particular investment, the concept is the same: raise productivity above subsistence in order to trigger a self-sustaining process of economic growth.

1. Focusing on Africa and India, write a paragraph explaining what you can learn from this map concerning development.

I can learn from this map that whether a country has its infrastructure in place or not can be related to its development. Africa, the world’s poorest continent, has few railway networks except in South Africa and countries up in the north, while India, which is now regarded as an emerging economy, has railways which are as closely woven as those in many developed nations such America and Spain. This contrast between these two countries which share the same kind of history mainly of colonization, independence after WWII, and epidemic-like poverty which followed after the independence tells that the existence of railways can be a factor that have decided the fortune of them. When India put its foot in the door of development with the development of IT industry and globalization, it had an established system of transportation the British had left which was ready to accommodate the needs to move materials and people quickly and in large amounts, and we know the rest of the story. Africa, on the other hand, has almost no facilities to provide necessities such as food, medicine, and materials, which hampers the efforts for development.

2. Discuss what aspects other than infrastructure are necessary to fight poverty.

The key to successful fight against poverty is to assist the poor out of the vicious cycle of subsistence by making them able to support themselves and develop their community by themselves. To help start their self-sustaining growth, developed countries can assist them in three areas other than helping build their infrastructure.
1) assistance in agriculture:
to help them out of food shortage through provision of technology and skills
2) assistance in health care:
to help them eliminate preventable deaths but providing basic healthcare which most developed countries enjoy in a way almost as equal as fundamental human rights
3) assistance in education:
to help their children receive proper education so that they can contribute to the community especially in its economic development in the future

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Class Supplements, TOEFL iBT, Independent Essay Writing, Money for military or other purposes, The country I would like to visit on a two-week trip, Is it ok for teachers to express their political belief in class?

☆Writing Topic A: Some people think it is important for a country to maintain a strong army in case of war. Others think it is better for a country to spend money and energy on other things than the military. Do you feel that your country should have a strong army?

♦Hints for points
Yes:
neighboring countries (China, South Korea, and ASEAN countries) getting wealthier and spending more money on their military
America getting less wealthy
The threat of North Korea

No:
less chance of war than before (strong economic and political relationships with America, China and other countries)
doubt about solution of international conflicts by military power (Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq, “war on terror”)
Article Nine as a soft power
the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty (American military bases in Japan)
other priorities (global warming, sagging economy, aging society, need for more research and development of science and technology)

☆Writing Topic B: In your school schedule, you are required to take an extra class in one of the following subjects: 1) physical education (sports and exercise activities), 2) home economics (cooking or sewing), or 3) current events (the study of topics from recent news stories). Which one of the three subjects would you choose to study?

♦Hints for points
Physical Education: keep in good shape, opportunities to try unfamiliar sports, refreshment, make friends
Home Economics: independence, to understand the world at the level of household (the basic unit of society)
Current Events: to understand what is going on in the world
related to many important aspects of our society such as economy, politics, and history
area that TV reports do not constantly cover in detail (especially international affairs)

☆Extra Writing Topic: School teachers, whether they work for public or private schools, should not express their opinions on current politics.

♦Hints for points
Yes:
1. In practice, contracts between teachers and the schools they work for prohibit them from taking a stand in politics, and teachers should follow the agreement they made when hired.

2. Teachers should be the conveyers of the consensus of the public. They should inform students of a variety of, well-balanced views, not a slanted, personal view.

3. Having a radical political view is a stepping stone in any place, including universities, on this world. Therefore, it is unthinkable and unacceptable for teachers, who are responsible for their students future careers, to affect their students’ political views.

No:
1. As long as they clearly say to their students that what they say is only a private view, it is ok.

2. Except for young children, who are still vulnerable to brainwash, students know better than to believe everything their teachers tell them. They take their teachers’ opinions as one of the many.

3. There is no neutral view, and, if any, such sterilized statements as those found in textbooks approved by the government would be the worst teaching materials in class, where a human beings of two different generations struggle to make the most of the given time for the better future, which requires realistic understanding of the past and the present.

To f 23

2012/08/06 (Mon)
To f,
さようなら。

To f 22

2012/08/05 (Sun)
To f,

一応なのですが、
数か月前から、他に好きな人がいるので、もう待っていません。

このブログタイトルを検索すると、To f 17 というタイトルの記録が今でもトップにあがってきているのと、意思表示が必要なのかなと思う事があって、こうすることにしました。

もっと早くこうしなければならなかったのならごめんなさい。

Class Supplement, 早稲田AO, The Death Penalty

ポイント: 死刑廃止への世界的な流れと死刑支持が大多数の日本の世論とのギャップ
問: 日本での死刑廃止への自分の考え

資料A 日本の死刑に関する世論調査の結果(ジャパン・タイムズ)
第1段落: 日本では死刑支持が圧倒的
85.6%が「不可避」と解答
1994年の調査開始以来最高の数字
凶悪犯罪増加の影響)
第2段落:日本での死刑支持増加化傾向
死刑」支持の理由: 
1)遺族の感情を考慮 
2)犯人は死を持って罪を償うべき 
3)凶悪犯罪抑止のため
第3段落: 日本での死刑不支持はごく少数で減少傾向
 死刑不支持の理由:
1) 犯人は生きて罪を償うべき
2) 冤罪の場合取り返しがつかない
第4段落: 調査方法

資料B 死刑に関する数字と事実(アムネスティー・インターナショナル)
各項目から読み取れること
項目1~3: 世界的には死刑は依然として続いている
項目4: 先進国では死刑実施は例外的
項目5~7: 非民主主義の方が頻繁に、容易に死刑を実施
項目8: 民主主義国家のリーダーであるアメリカでは死刑を実施しない例多数
項目9~11: 死刑を廃止した国も多数ある

答え方:
問題文は、「資料を注意深く調べたうえで」自分の意見を述べるよう指示しているので、資料から読み取れる傾向を考慮しながら意見を述べる。
死刑廃止指示・不支持の理由は資料Aの第2・第3段落及び、資料Bの世界的な死刑廃止への流れを使う。更に独自の意見があれば付け加えてもよい。

解答アイディア:
Although it seems impossible to abolish death penalty when most Japanese feel it is necessary, Japan should abolish it for the following reasons.
1) Abolitionism is the trend of the world.
2) Death penalty is morally wrong. It is based on uncivilized thought: An eye for an eye.
Humans have no rights to kill other humans.
3) Death penalty is not practical. It does not work as deterrent. Most criminals are mentally ill and/or mentally disabled.
4) False charges should be stopped. Even DNA examinations are often wrong.
5) Life sentence should be the alternative for compensation for the crime and prevention of second offence.

Supersonic/Electronic Weapon 不特定多数による長期にわたる原因不明の嫌がらせ(6)

2012/07/01 (Sun) Wtb 1:38. Slpt fm 1:40-7:10 (6 hrs)
around 7:00 game/car-like noise from the other side of the bathroom wall
the noises in my head loud and wavy

around 14:33 a strong pain in the back of the left eye, which felt like an arrow hit through my head, when I was blow-drying my hair after taking a shower before going out for grocery shopping

15:40-16:17 (0.5 hrs) fell asleep while preparing for the classes starting tomorrow (July 2-6, 16:00-21:20) in Ikebukuro, which were booked three days ago

Went out to buy ingredients for the soup for the week in the evening.

Class Supplement, TOEIC受験直前用 単語の覚え方とリスニングの練習法

本来、単語もリスニングも実力をつけるにはある程度の時間と地道な努力の積み重ねが必要です。
このプリントにはTOEIC受験本番までに時間があまり残されていない状況でやってみるとよいことが書かれています。丸暗記ではなく、自分の言葉にするという気持ちで取り組みましょう

☆単語
♦覚える単語の選び方: リスニングの問題文と選択肢、解答解説で取り上げられている単語・表現、
リーディング特にPart 5(穴埋め問題)の問題文と答えの単語
♦覚え方:
1) 意味とつづりを確認 → 声に出して発音 → 文全体の意味確認
✓発音が分からない時は辞書やネットで実際の音を確認

2) 電子辞書の「単語帳」機能に登録
a. 1日3回、時間を決めて登録した単語を確認 
※通学中、休憩時間、寝る前など、毎日することと一緒にするようにすると忘れない。
b. 覚えにくいものは辞書の定義・例文を読んでイメージをつかむ。
→英英辞書、英和辞書どちらでも使いやすい方を使う
例: emit「(排気ガスなどを)放出する」の例文: 
The kettle emitted steam with a shrill whistle.(やかんが鋭い口笛のような音と共に蒸気を出した。)Greenhouse gasses are emitted from cars and factories. (温暖化ガスは車や工場から放出される。)

☆リスニング
教材: 市販のTOEIC問題集
✓お勧め問題集: 著者名 キム・デギュン、ロバード・ヒルキ、イ・イクフン、Kang, Jin O & Kang, Won giなど
演習法: (5と6は余裕がない時はとばしてもかまいません)
1) 実際のテストと同じようにして解き、OXを付ける(解答解説はまだ見ない)
2) Xのもの(間違えた問題)のみ2~3回聞き直して解き直してから解答解説を見る
3) Part 2, 3, & 4の間違えた問題のシチュエーションと意味を確認
4) スクリプトを見ながらCDと同じ速さ・リズムで読めるようにする
※自分の声がCDとかぶらないようにヘッドフォンをする
5) 問題文が読まれた後の間(10秒間)で答えの単語や文を言ってみる → 正解文で答えを確認
6) シャドーイングをする
シャドーイング: スクリプトを見ないでCDの後を追うようにして発音する。ついてゆけなくなったところでスクリプトをみてつまずいた理由(速すぎて聞こえなかった、慣れていない英語圏のアクセントだった、音がつながって聞こえた、単語の発音を覚えていなかったなど)を確認
7) Part 3 & 4はiPodなどに入れて勉強以外のことをしている時(食事中や歯磨き中など)に聞く